Many engineers consider a low voltage DC permanent magnet motor as something they would find at home in tools and appliances. This is the more conventional iron core DC motor where the windings are wrapped around an iron core with the magnet on the outer casing. Often this as the first type of motor we are introduced to in our science class in school.
By Paul Williams, Senior Sales Engineer at Maxon Motor
The iron core DC motor is used in millions of drive systems; providing a low cost solution for many commercial applications, powering everything from toys to car mirrors. They are cheap to manufacture and are produced in high volumes.
Perhaps a lesser known technology used on small DC permanent magnet motors is that of the ironless rotor design. These motors can be found in many devices where high speed servo performances are required, such as robotics; X-ray drives; prosthetics; lab analysis equipment; thermal imaging; radar drives and high end record decks. Applications using ironless DC motors benefit from a highly dynamic drive, linear speed and torque control with in a high power to size ratio (compact size).
The design is based on a coreless or iron less winding (sometimes referred to as a basket weave or bell type design). The permanent magnet sits underneath the winding, with the outer case of the motor being the magnetic return, this make for a very compact design.
The commutators and brushes of smaller ironless motors are made of precious metals such as silver, gold, platinum or palladium. They have low friction and generate little magnetic interference. The motors work with very low starting voltages and for larger motors they tend to have copper-graphite commutation systems that can handle the higher current.
The advantage of this motor is that there is no iron core so there is no magnetic field to break down. They also have very low inertia.
These factors bring some distinct advantages over a conventional iron core motor.
Of course the ironless rotor does have some disadvantages.
To summarise, both iron cored and coreless DC motors have their own benefits and drawbacks, however coreless DC motors are superior in terms of performance as they can operate at very low speeds, due to no cogging torque, yet offer a low inertia which allows high acceleration rates. Consider ironless DC motors for more demanding applications, the ironless motor has higher dynamic performance, higher power to weight ratio’s and longer life than the more familiar conventional DC motor. The efficiency and service life of ironless DC motors is a key selling point, however each application varies and the motor chosen must be suitable for the requirements.